Getting the Most From Your Health Savings Account (HSA)

Getting the Most From Your Health Savings Account (HSA)

 

Are you aware of the many planning aspects of HSAs? We’d like to share some of the more in-depth aspects with you here so you can get the most from your HSA. However, if you’re unfamiliar with HSAs or need a quick reminder about them and high-deductible health plans (HDHP), then we encourage you first to read our blog article: A New Perspective on Health Savings Accounts.

HSAs are more tax efficient than other retirement accounts.

HSA accounts are often referred to as “triple tax-exempt” because your contributions, earnings, and qualified withdrawals are not taxed. This triple tax-exempt nature of HSAs makes them more attractive than other retirement accounts that are only double tax-exempt, including 401(k)s, IRAs, and Roth IRAs.

 

Employee HSAs could be considered quadruple tax-exempt.

Additionally, if you’re an employee and make HSA contributions via payroll deduction, then you have an added benefit of avoiding FICA (Social Security and Medicare) and FUTA (unemployment) taxes on those contributions. Contributions to your 401(k) via payroll deductions don’t avoid these taxes.

 

Don’t use your HSA for current medical expenses and invest the funds.

In order to fully benefit from the triple or quadruple tax-exempt nature of an HSA, you’ll need to let the account grow. It’s important to leave your contributions in your HSA and to invest them for the most potential growth.

Note: This means you’ll need to pay for medical expenses out of pocket, which can get expensive when you have a high-deductible health plan (HDHP).

 

Save receipts for current medical expenses to reimburse yourself in the future.

There is no time limit for reimbursing yourself for qualified medical expenses, so you can reimburse yourself in the future—even 30 years from now—for expenses incurred today. You must keep records of these expenses, so it’s important to keep your receipts. You’ll have plenty of medical expenses in retirement, so saving receipts for small expenses may not be worth the effort. Consider saving receipts for larger current expenses.

Note: You can’t reimburse yourself for medical expenses incurred before the HSA account was established or for medical expenses deducted on Schedule A of your tax return as itemized deductions.

 

Maximize your catch-up contributions in a family HDHP.

You can make an annual $1,000 catch-up contribution to your HSA beginning at age 55. If you have a family HDHP or two separate HDHPs, then you can potentially make two catch-up contributions—one for each spouse who’s 55 or older if the catch-up contributions are made to each of their separate HSA accounts.

Note: Most family HDHPs are set up with one HSA account in the employee’s name. If the spouse doesn’t have their own HSA account, then they will need to open one in order to make their own catch-up contribution.

 

Contribute after you stop working and before you enroll in Medicare

Unlike an IRA or Roth IRA, you don’t need to have earned income to be able to contribute to your HSA. You can contribute to your HSA if you have an HDHP and haven’t yet enrolled in Medicare. If you retire before Medicare age, then you’ll need to either continue your coverage through your employer with COBRA or get individual coverage. If either of these coverages is an HDHP, then you can contribute to an HSA.

Note: You can’t contribute to an HSA once you enroll in Medicare because Medicare is not an HDHP. Enrollment in Medicare includes enrollment in any Medicare coverage—Parts A, B, C, D, or a Medigap plan.

 

Contribute tax-free funds from your IRA in a one-time rollover.

You can make a one-time rollover from your IRA to your HSA up to your contribution limit for the year. If you wait to perform this rollover until you’re age 55, you can rollover both the maximum annual contribution and your catch-up contribution. This rollover must be transferred directly from your IRA into your HSA in order to be tax-free.

Note: A good candidate for this rollover would be someone who has a large IRA and might already be looking for openings to convert some of their IRA to after-tax accounts, such as a Roth IRA.

 

Use your HSA to pay for certain insurance premiums.

You can use your HSA to pay for certain health insurance premiums that are considered qualified expenses, including long-term care insurance (subject to limits and restrictions), healthcare continuation such as COBRA, healthcare coverage while receiving unemployment benefits, and Medicare or other healthcare coverage at age 65. Premiums for a Medicare supplemental policy are not considered a qualified expense.

Note: The annual amount of qualified long-term care premiums is limited and based on your age, which ranges from $420 for those age 40 and younger to $5,270 for those age 71 and older. The long-term care policy must also meet certain requirements itself to be qualified.

 

Non-qualified withdrawals after age 65 aren’t penalized.

Withdrawals for qualified expenses for yourself, your spouse, and your dependents are not taxable and not subject to a penalty. Non-qualified withdrawals are subject to a 20% penalty and tax, but the 20% penalty no longer applies once you reach age 65. Non-qualified withdrawals after age 65 are taxable, making them comparable to IRA withdrawals. While you’ll lose the triple-tax exempt nature of an HSA, your contributions and growth were tax-free.

Note: If you must take taxable distributions and you aren’t yet 65, then consider distributing funds from an IRA before distributing funds from your HSA to avoid the 20% penalty. Keep in mind that there is a 10% penalty for IRA withdrawals prior to age 59 ½.

 

Qualified distributions for a deceased owner are non-taxable within one year of death.

If you pass away and your beneficiary is your spouse, then they can continue the HSA as their own. If the beneficiary is not your spouse, then the value of your HSA at the time of your death is distributed and deemed taxable income for them. However, your beneficiary can use the HSA to pay for your outstanding qualified expenses within one year of your death. Funds used for this purpose by a non-spouse beneficiary are excluded from the value of the account, thus lowering their taxable income.

Note: Discuss your outstanding qualified expenses with your beneficiary. They can only use the account to pay for your expenses after your death if they have the necessary information and records.

 

Getting the most out of your HSA can be difficult, especially while trying to do so over a long period of time. It’s important to integrate HSA planning into your overall financial goals and retirement plan. As financial advisors, we love to help our clients accomplish these things, so please reach out to us if you have any questions. We’re here to help!

What Women Need to Know About Working with Financial Advisors | Tip #5

What Women Need to Know About Working with Financial Advisors | Tip #5

 

I want to acknowledge that all women are wonderfully unique individuals and therefore these tips will not be applicable to all of us equally and may be very helpful to some men and nonbinary individuals. This is written in an effort to support women, not to exclude, generalize, or stereotype any group.

 

I was recently reminded of a troubling statistic: Two-thirds of women do not trust their advisors. Having worked in the financial services industry for nearly two decades, this is unfortunately not surprising to me. But it is troubling, largely because it’s so preventable.

Whether you have a long-standing relationship with an advisor, are just starting to consider working with a financial planner, or are considering making a change, there are some simple tips all women should be aware of to improve this relationship and strengthen their financial futures.

 

Tip #5 – Go to the Meetings

 

I haven’t seen any studies on whether or not women attend fewer meetings. However, if two-thirds of women don’t trust their advisors, I have to believe they aren’t eager to sit in a room with someone they don’t trust for an hour. I sometimes hear that one spouse “just isn’t interested in finances” so they don’t attend meetings. It’s perfectly fine to not be interested. My spouse isn’t! One thing I always find fascinating about working with couples is seeing all the different ways we decide to divide and conquer household tasks. Those lines are often logically drawn based on who has the most interest or the most time. However, even if you completely trust your spouse to handle the finances and you don’t have any interest, it’s important that you are part of the big picture conversations. You may not have any opinion on whether you invest in mutual fund XYZ, but you may have goals that aren’t even on your spouse’s radar or strong opinions about whether your entire portfolio is invested conservatively or aggressively. I find that when one spouse “just isn’t interested in finances,” it means that they attended meetings with other advisors in the past where the conversation wasn’t properly framed to address their goals, or they felt uncomfortable asking questions.

In addition to making sure your financial plan properly addresses your goals and takes your comfort level into account, it’s also important to build a relationship with your advisor so that if you do have questions, if you separate from your spouse, or if they pass away, you have someone you trust to turn to for help.

Be sure to read our previous blog posts for additional tips to help women get the most out of working with a financial advisor. You may notice that all five of these tips are easier to follow when you follow tip #1—work with an advisor you like. There are many different considerations when hiring an advisor: Are they a fiduciary? Do they practice comprehensive planning? How are they compensated? What is their investment philosophy? They may check off all your other boxes, but if you don’t like them, you are unlikely to get all you need out of the relationship. If you’re looking for an advisor you’re compatible with, consider perusing our advisor bios.

Happy New Year!

Happy New Year!

 

2020 brought many expected and unexpected challenges – on top of a political election year, we faced a pandemic, a challenged economy, and turbulent markets, to name a few.

We don’t yet know what 2021 will bring for the economy, for markets, or for our own lives, but there are still some things we can control.

As we welcome in a new year with hopeful expectations, let’s take a moment to recommit to those factors within our control:

 

Sharing Our Dreams and Values

As we reflect on the strange and challenging times this year, many find themselves wondering what their families did in the past to get through difficult times. We may remember snippets of stories told by our elders or passed on through our family, but often wish we knew more.

As wealth advisors we know firsthand the importance of legacy planning through legal documents. We also believe in the value of sharing the essence of who you are, your values, and experiences for future generations to come, through the creation of a Family Legacy Letter.

 

Building Better Financial Behaviors

Too many investors focus on markets when they should focus on themselves, their hopes, their goals, and their dreams. Identifying the choices in our control isn’t just a good financial lesson, it’s a great life lesson dating back to ancient Greece, when the Stoic philosopher Epictetus said:

“The chief task in life is simply this: to identify and separate matters so that I can say clearly to myself which are externals not under my control, and which have to do with the choices I actually control.”

 

Understanding Our Biases

Daniel Kahneman and Amos Tversky are famous for their work on human behavior, particularly around judgment and decision making. We can apply much of their discoveries to investor behavior. While we can’t completely eliminate biases, we can learn about them and how they impact our decision making, allowing us to take action to address them and avoid costly mistakes.

 

May you and your family enjoy the warmth this season has to offer and a new year filled with hope, love and success!

 

 

Think Twice Before Moving Into Your Rental To Avoid Taxes

Think Twice Before Moving Into Your Rental To Avoid Taxes

Updated 12/23/2020 by Geoff Curran, Jeff Barnett, & Scott Christensen

National real estate prices have been on the rise since 2014, and many investors who jumped into the rental industry since the Great Recession have substantial gains in property values (S&P Dow Jones Indices, 2019). You might be considering selling your rental to lock in profits and enjoy the fruits of your well-timed investment, but realizing those gains could come at a cost. You could owe capital gains tax in addition to potential depreciation recapture on the profits from your rental sale.

One strategy for paying less tax is to move back into your rental and use the property as a primary residence before selling. Living in your rental full-time for at least two years prior to selling can help you take advantage of the gain exclusion of $500,000 ($250,000 if single), which can wipe out all or most of your gain on the property. Sounds easy, right?

Let’s take a look at some of the moving pieces for determining the taxes when you sell your rental. Factors like depreciation recapture, qualified vs. non-qualified use and adjusted cost basis could make you think twice before moving back into your rental to avoid taxes.

Depreciation Recapture

One of the benefits of having a rental is the ability to claim depreciation on the property, which allows you to offset rental income that would otherwise be taxed as ordinary income. The depreciation you take reduces your basis in the property, potentially resulting in more capital gains when you ultimately sell. If you sell the property for a gain, the amount up to the depreciation you took is taxed at the maximum recapture rate of 25%. Any remaining gains are taxed at the lower long-term capital gains rate. Moving back into your rental to claim the primary residence gain exclusion does not allow you to exclude your depreciation recapture, so you might still owe a hefty tax bill after moving back, depending on how much depreciation was deducted. (IRS, 2019).

When the Property Sells for a Loss

Keep in mind that if you sell your home for a loss, whether it’s currently a rental or is now your primary residence, you aren’t subject to depreciation recapture or other gains taxes. However, due to depreciation decreasing your cost basis in the property each year until it reaches zero, it’s more common that sales of former rental homes result in gains. (more…)

What Women Need to Know About Working with Financial Advisors | Tip #4

What Women Need to Know About Working with Financial Advisors | Tip #4

I want to acknowledge that all women are wonderfully unique individuals and therefore these tips will not be applicable to all of us equally and may be very helpful to some men and nonbinary individuals. This is written in an effort to support women, not to exclude, generalize, or stereotype any group. 

 

I was recently reminded of a troubling statistic: Two-thirds of women do not trust their advisors. Having worked in the financial services industry for nearly two decades, this is unfortunately not surprising to me. But it is troubling, largely because it’s so preventable.

Whether you have a long-standing relationship with an advisor, are just starting to consider working with a financial planner, or are considering making a change, there are some simple tips all women should be aware of to improve this relationship and strengthen their financial futures.

Tip #4 – Ask Questions

Studies have shown that women tend to be more realistic about their own skill level. It’s not necessarily that we lack confidence—more that we lack overconfidence. I think that’s a good thing; however, it means women lacking financial expertise are more likely to feel self-conscious about asking a question that could be perceived as foolish. This can be particularly hard if there is a third party present (such as a spouse) who has a greater understanding, likes to use the lingo, and/or tends to monopolize the conversation. If necessary, don’t be shy about asking for a one-on-one meeting with your advisor so you have a chance to ask all the questions you want without someone interrupting you or changing the subject.

I would always prefer that someone ask questions rather than misunderstand, and it can be difficult to gauge a client’s level of understanding if they don’t ask questions. I have many highly-educated clients who have never had any interest in investing or financial planning, so it just isn’t their strong suit. There is nothing to be embarrassed about. I promise that an experienced advisor has heard any basic question you might ask a thousand times before. If an advisor is unhelpful or condescending when you ask a question, you should not be working with that person. There are plenty of advisors out there who are eager to share what they know with you. Sometimes the hard part can be getting us to stop talking once you’ve asked! And of course, being comfortable enough to ask questions is always easier if you like the person you are working with (see tip #1).

There are many different considerations when hiring an advisor: Are they a fiduciary? Do they practice comprehensive planning? How are they compensated? What is their investment philosophy? They may check off all your other boxes, but if you don’t like them, you are unlikely to get all you need out of the relationship. If you’re looking for an advisor you’re compatible with, consider perusing our advisor bios.

Be sure to read our previous and upcoming blog posts for additional tips to help women get the most out of working with a financial advisor.

2020 Year-End Tax Moves

2020 Year-End Tax Moves

 

The Tax Cut and Jobs Act (TCJA) passed at the end of 2017, and the Setting Every Community Up for Retirement Enhancement Act (SECURE) passed at the end of 2019. These both made significant changes to annual tax-planning strategies.

The COVID-19 pandemic and the CARES Act relief package that followed created a new layer of complexity. Unfortunately, many taxpayers miss opportunities for significant tax savings.

Here are six moves to consider making before the end of the year to potentially lower your taxes both this year and in years to come.

  1. Take the Standard Deduction Later. The new tax rules nearly doubled the standard deduction and eliminated many write-offs, limiting the benefit of itemizing deductions for most taxpayers. However, you can optimize your deductions by “bunching” itemized deductions in a single year to get over the standard deduction threshold and then by taking the standard deduction in the following year.

    Example: Instead of giving $10,000 to charity annually (which will likely leave you with the standard deduction anyway), gift $50,000 every 5 years. This will give you a greater tax benefit in the first year while still claiming the standard deduction in the other years to maximize tax savings.

  2. Pre-Pay Your Medical Expenses. Have major medical-related expenses coming up? You can potentially maximize the tax deduction by paying out-of-pocket medical expenses in a single calendar year—either by pushing payments out to the next year or pulling later expenses into this year.

    A surprising number of medical expenses qualify, including unreimbursed doctor fees, long-term-care premiums, certain Medicare plans, and some home modifications.

    Note: Medical expenses are an itemized deduction, so this strategy may be best used with the “bunching” strategy described above, including possibly paying medical expenses in a year you maximize charitable donations.

  3. Give Money to Your Favorite Charity Right Now from Your IRA. If you’re over 70 ½, you can make up to $100,000 of annual Qualified Charitable Distributions (QCDs) directly from your IRA to a qualifying charity. Even better, for retirees who don’t need to take their Required Minimum Distribution (RMD) each year, these qualified charitable distributions count toward the RMD but don’t appear in taxable income.

    Even though the CARES Act allowed RMDs to be skipped in 2020, you can still make a QCD this year.

    Note: QCDs must be made by December 31 to count for this tax year.

  4. Take Advantage of Years in a Lower Tax Bracket with a Roth Conversion. A Roth conversion can permanently lower your taxable income in retirement by converting tax-deferred assets (IRA / 401k) into tax-free assets in a Roth account. It is best to do this in years where you are in a lower tax bracket than you expect to be in the future.

    Annual Roth conversions when in a lower tax bracket are a way to smooth out annual taxes and minimize the amount paid over a lifetime.

    Example: If a taxpayer at age 63 is in the 12% tax bracket, then moving $10,000 from an IRA to a Roth account will owe an additional $1,200 in taxes. That same taxpayer at age 73 may be in the 24% tax bracket due to Social Security, pension, and RMD income they didn’t have at 62. Taking that same $10,000 from an IRA will now result an in additional $2,400 in taxes.

  5. Optimize Your Investment Portfolio to Improve Expected After-Tax Return. Prior to the TCJA, you could write off some fees you pay for investment management. The TCJA did away with that deduction. There are still ways to pay fees with pre-tax dollars that may make sense depending on the types of accounts used.

    Likewise, some investments will be more tax efficient, and other investments will be less tax efficient. Where possible, move the most tax-efficient investments into a taxable investment account and the least tax-efficient investments into a tax-advantaged retirement account. The goal is to determine an ideal overall allocation, even if each individual account has a slightly different allocation.

    Both strategies above can potentially help maximize the after-tax return on investments.

  6. Optimize Your Retirement Contributions. The most important step you can take right now to reduce your taxes this year may be to review how and where you’re making retirement contributions. You may be missing out on critical tax savings (and investment growth) if you’re not optimizing your contributions.

    Potential retirement account strategies people often miss include Solo 401k for self-employed individuals, backdoor Roth contributions, or “mega” backdoor Roth contributions at certain large employers.

 

Everyone’s situation is different, and today’s retirement environment is complex. Working with a financial professional who coordinates with your CPA can help ensure you’re not missing any opportunities to optimize your portfolio and pay less in taxes.