How Do Incentive Stock Options (ISOs) Impact Alternative Minimum Tax (AMT)?

How Do Incentive Stock Options (ISOs) Impact Alternative Minimum Tax (AMT)?

 

One of the most common areas where we see clients introduced to Alternative Minimum Tax is when Incentive Stock Options (ISOs) enter the financial picture.  To learn more about AMT and how it is calculated, so you can avoid a shock, check our blog post from last week.

ISOs can be a tremendous benefit to creating wealth, but they are often misunderstood and can pack a large surprise if not appropriately planned for.  Here are a few key terms to get us started:

  • Grant Date/Amount– Original date and number of shares awarded
  • Vesting Date– The date at which you are allowed to exercise your options
  • Exercise Price– Price paid for options, usually discounted from the current share price.
  • Bargain Element– Difference between exercise price and fair market value (FMV); drives potential AMT liability

ISO preferential tax treatment is attained when the shares are sold one year after exercise and two years after grant. When this criterion is met, the gains upon the sale will be considered long-term capital gains, as opposed to short-term gains which are taxed at current income rates.

 

Qualifying vs Disqualifying Disposition:

 

Qualifying Disposition
  • Exercise and sell one year after exercise and two years after grant – AMT liability in the year you exercise, and gains are considered long-term capital gains
  • Exercise and hold – AMT liability in the year you exercise but no additional immediate tax liability because the shares have yet to be sold

 

Disqualifying Disposition:
  • Exercise and sell within one calendar year – no AMT liability and gains are taxed as regular income
  • Exercise and sell within 12 months, across two calendar years – AMT liability in the year you exercise, and gains are taxed as regular income
  • Exercise and sell more than one year from exercise but less than two years from grant – AMT liability in the year you exercise, and gains are split between regular income rates for the bargain element and capital gains depending on holding period

 

The AMT tax liability mentioned in the scenarios above is determined based on the difference between the exercise price and the fair market value (FMV) of the shares on the date of exercise. AMT may result in a larger tax bill than a typical year without exercising options and thus will directly affect your household’s cash flow.  The good news is that when you end up paying AMT related exercising ISOs, you will likely receive an AMT tax credit, which can be used to offset your federal income tax bill in future years.  This is a great reason why involving a CPA to help keep track of all the moving pieces is highly recommended.

The 83(b) Election is an alternative approach to divesting company stock. If your company allows, you have 30 days from the grant date to notify the IRS and your company of the 83(b) election. This involves paying tax on the exercise price from the grant at regular income rates; there would be no AMT implication and depending on when you sell the shares, you would later realize short- or long-term capital gains. For shares which you expect to increase in value, this can provide a fantastic tax break. This is however considered a risky approach because the shares could lose value and you would have overpaid on taxes by making this election.

Please reach out to us if you would like to work through your specific situation.

 

 

Disclosure: The material is presented solely for information purposes and has been gathered from sources believed to be reliable, however Merriman cannot guarantee the accuracy or completeness of such information, and certain information presented here may have been condensed or summarized from its original source. Merriman does not provide tax, legal or accounting advice, and nothing contained in these materials should be relied upon as such. Advisory services are only offered to clients or prospective clients where Merriman and its representatives are properly licensed or exempt from licensure. No advice may be rendered by Merriman unless a client service agreement is in place.

 

What Is Alternative Minimum Tax (AMT) And Does It Affect You?

What Is Alternative Minimum Tax (AMT) And Does It Affect You?

 

Alternative Minimum Tax (AMT) is not something everyone is exposed to, but when you are, it can often create confusion and add a layer of complexity to financial planning that many are not prepared for.  This article will help outline how AMT may affect your financial situation.

The Alternative Minimum Tax was created in the 1960s with the intention of preventing taxpayers with substantial income from utilizing various deductions in order to dodge the traditional federal income tax system. The AMT system runs parallel to federal income tax for individuals, trusts, and estates. Corporations were also once subject to AMT until this was repealed by the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act in 2017. AMT is calculated to determine if taxpayers are paying their “fair share” in a given tax year. For individuals, the AMT system recalculates income tax using fewer deductions and exemptions – for example the standard/itemized deduction – and then adds back specific tax preference items to an individual’s gross income. 

A few of the preference items that we often see that affect AMT are listed below. There are several other influencing factors which are less common, and for the sake of this article, have been left out. IRS Form 6251 has the full details.

  • Capital gains from exercise of stock options (i.e., Incentive Stock Options)
  • Qualifying exclusion for small business stock
  • Interest on private activity bonds
  • Deductions for accelerated depreciation

Once the Alternative Minimum Taxable Income (AMTI) is calculated, the annual AMT exemption is applied to determine what amount is subject to AMT rates. In 2021, the AMT exemption is $73,600 for single filers and $114,600 for married filing jointly. The exemption begins to phase out for single filers at $523,600 and at $1,047,200 for married filing jointly.

After determining the minimum tax base, the AMT tax rate of 26% is applied on the first $199,900 (as of 2021).  Amounts above this figure are then subject to the second and final AMT tax rate of 28% to determine your overall AMT liability. After all is said and done, you will owe the higher of the two, traditional tax liability or AMT liability.

One of the most common areas where we see clients introduced to AMT is when Incentive Stock Options (ISOs) enter the financial picture. ISOs are often awarded by companies in lieu of direct compensation (i.e., annual salary), as a way to incentivize an employee to help grow the value of the company. Please check our blog upcoming blog post for specific details regarding Incentive Stock Options and the impact of AMT.

The majority of taxpayers don’t encounter AMT, but when they do, it can be a complete surprise.  Here at Merriman, we take a comprehensive approach to fully understand your financial landscape. In most situations, it is wise to involve a CPA when facing the AMT due to the complexity and varying timelines that affect cash flow. Please reach out to Merriman if you would like to discuss your situation in greater detail.

Watch for our upcoming blog post which will go into further detail about Incentive Stock Options (ISOs).

 

 

 

Disclosure: The material is presented solely for information purposes and has been gathered from sources believed to be reliable, however Merriman cannot guarantee the accuracy or completeness of such information, and certain information presented here may have been condensed or summarized from its original source. Merriman does not provide tax, legal or accounting advice, and nothing contained in these materials should be relied upon as such. Advisory services are only offered to clients or prospective clients where Merriman and its representatives are properly licensed or exempt from licensure. No advice may be rendered by Merriman unless a client service agreement is in place.

New IRS Rollover Relief Update for Required Minimum Distributions (RMD)

New IRS Rollover Relief Update for Required Minimum Distributions (RMD)

What is the new Rollover guidance?

The IRS announced on Tuesday, June 23, 2020, via Notice 2020-51 (PDF), additional relief relating to Required Minimum Distributions (RMD), allowing you to return RMD funds withdrawn after January 1, 2020.

As it sits now, the CARES Act RMD waiver for 2020 is still in place, meaning that you are not required to take an RMD for 2020. This applies to defined-contribution plans such as 401(k) or 403(b) plans and IRA accounts. Those who have previously taken RMDs are likely familiar with the process; but for those who turned 70 ½ in 2019, this all may be brand new, and it’s important to understand the timeframes. This can easily be confused with the SECURE Act which passed toward the end of 2019, changing the RMD age to 72 going forward. Tuesday’s announcement extends relief to anyone who has previously taken an RMD in 2020 by extending the opportunity to return the funds up through August 31st, 2020. In addition, if you return funds under this new announcement, the notice states that the repayment is not subject to the one rollover per 12-month period or the rollover restrictions with inherited IRAs. This is particularly important because the SECURE Act changed the timeframe in which beneficiaries are required to withdraw inherited IRA funds. To find information about the SECURE Act changes, Paige Lee, CFA, wrote a great article which can be found here. There is a lot going on here, and the overall message is that you have more flexibility than ever on how you treat a 2020 RMD.

What was the original relief for RMDs?

The CARES Act (Coronavirus Aid, Relief, and Economic Security Act) was signed into law on March 27th, 2020, providing relief amidst the COVID-19 pandemic for many American taxpayers and businesses. We posted a blog that summarizes these changes which can be found here. In respect to RMDs, the CARES Act originally allowed individuals to forego taking a 2020 RMD and allowed you to return any RMD taken within the previous 60 days. Despite being a fantastic planning opportunity, anyone who took an RMD earlier that the previous 60 days was left out in the cold. Later in April, the IRS issued a follow-up notice that extended the time period to include those who took an RMD between February 1 and May 15 where the funds could be returned by July 15th. This is no longer the case with the most recent announcement, and now anyone who has taken an RMD from January 1st, 2020, can make the decision to return the funds.

How can you take advantage of this?

This offers a tremendous planning opportunity by providing households with the ability to shift income and take advantage of market conditions. Returning an RMD can lead to a host of strategic financial moves including the following:

  • Continued growth of tax-deferred assets
  • Opening room to make Roth IRA conversions
  • A chance to look at taxable accounts to see if it makes sense to withdraw funds at capital gain rates as opposed to marginal tax rates
  • Rebalancing—as the funds are returned, holdings can be adjusted to shore up your overall allocation

We help our clients make the best choices with the information available, and now that this new extension has been issued, we view this as an opportunity to review your circumstances, discuss the various options, and decide on whether or not to take action.

Connect with Merriman to discuss.

Here at Merriman, we are very excited about this announcement and strongly encourage you to contact us if you have already taken an RMD from your IRA or Inherited IRA this year. We’ll help you understand and explore your options and determine if taking advantage of this extended RMD relief makes sense for you.

 

Debt Repayment: Alleviate your money from its obligation to the past

Debt Repayment: Alleviate your money from its obligation to the past

There is a good chance you, or a close family member, carry debt. It’s common for the typical American household to carry amounts exceeding six figures (Tsoie & Issa, 2018). Debt can be mysterious in the sense that individuals might owe a similar amount, but perspectives on how to repay debt vary dramatically. Debt is also not always negative and can provide strategic benefits in your financial plan. Consider a home mortgage for example, the underlying asset is likely to increase in value. Mortgages often offer a valuable source of leverage, but loans on depreciating assets like cars can quickly end up with negative equity. Other loans, like high interest credit card debt, can be especially menacing.  This article will focus on consumer debt repayment and we will highlight a few common approaches to help the borrowers make real progress on eliminating debt.

Many households across the country have debt related to auto loans, credit cards and even personal loans. The decision to take on debt is personal and the need or desire for debt means different things to just about everyone. Below are some common questions to consider when developing a debt repayment plan.

  • How do you organize debt?
  • Which debt should be paid first?
  • Should debt be paid off ahead of investing for retirement?

One strategy that many people find effective for debt elimination is using rolling payments. Rolling payments involves focusing on aggressively paying off one loan at a time, while making the minimum payments on other debt. With rolling payments, you throw as many excess dollars in your budget as possible toward repaying one loan. Once the target loan is paid off, roll that loan payment into paying off the next debt beyond the monthly minimums. Keep rolling your payments to the next loan on your list until the ball and chain of your bad debt is paid in full. To illustrate a couple different ways to prioritize your debt list, we are going to look at three approaches for prioritizing debt, including, an interest rate approach, a behavioral approach and a combination strategy that factors in retirement savings.

When evaluating debt repayment from an interest rate approach, order all debts from highest interest to lowest, and attack the highest rate first. Focusing on interest rates makes sense because you are reducing the debt with the highest interest rate drag. Although progressive, the downside to this approach is that it might take months or even years until you finally check a loan off your list. Many people become worn out and lose motivation to follow the plan. There will also be cases where a loan with a lower interest rate, but larger balance will be more impactful on the overall repayment plan than a small loan with a higher rate. However, prioritizing debt strictly by interest rates ignores that.

Interest Rate Approach Example

Let’s meet Steve, who has three outstanding debts. Steve has student loans totaling $22,000 at 6%, a car note of $15,000 at 3.5% and $8,000 of credit card debt at 17% annual interest. Utilizing the interest rate approach, Steve will prioritize his debts according to the table below and use the rolling payment method, we discussed for repayment.

Illustrating the Behavioral Approach

Now let’s consider Steve’s situation from the behavioral approach. This behavioral method prioritizes starting with the smallest loan regardless of interest rates. Compared to the interest rate approach, you will likely end up paying more interest overall with the behavioral strategy, but the small wins along the way provide motivation and reason to celebrate. This method has been popularized by the personal finance personality, Dave Ramsey, who consistently recommends focusing on behavior. He refers to this approach as the “debt snowball”. You can still take advantage of rolling payments with the behavioral strategy, so once each loan is paid off, roll the payment to the next debt on the list.

Combining Perspectives: Debt Repayment and Retirement Savings

The power of compounding interest reveals its best to contribute early and often towards retirement savings for maximum growth. If your debt is not too overwhelming, it can be valuable to continue retirement savings while paying down loans. With this in mind, we can utilize a combination approach that addresses both debt reduction and retirement savings. One method is to target either a specific debt reduction or savings goal. Use your primary goal as a minimum benchmark then throw as many extra dollars in the other direction (debt or savings) as possible. Combining goals of retirement savings and debt elimination is best utilized when loan interest is less than the expected return of investments for retirement. Focusing on both savings and paying off debt can be helpful for identifying opportunities to “beat the spread” by investing versus paying off debt.

No matter how you decide to repay debt, take comfort in knowing the best strategy is one you can commit to and stick with during tough times. Here at Merriman, we believe in the power of committing to a sound plan for guidance throughout your financial life. If you’re lost on where to start, please take a few minutes to read First Things First by Geoff Curran, which provides a guide toward prioritizing your savings. If you have questions or would like to learn a bit more, please contact a Merriman advisor who can help navigate your specific situation.

 

 

References:

Tsosie, C., & Issa E.E. (2018, December 10). 2018 American Household Credit Card Debt Study. Retrieved from https://www.nerdwallet.com/blog/average-credit-card-debt-household/